information visualisation ()

Areas of Expertise

Information Visualisation
Information visualisation is the use of enhanced Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) to communicate and interact with complex data sets such as social networks, multiattribute tables, and financial data. Pages of text and numbers are not the most effective way to communicate or understand information.


Biology is a visually grounded scientific discipline-from the way data is collected and analysed to the manner in which the results are communicated to others. Traditionally pictures in scientific publications were hand-drawn; however they are now almost exclusively computer-generated.
Weather Prediction - Motogoloco
Development of a proof-of-concept prototype for the visualisation of multi-dimensional data affecting motorcycle journeys. The primary problem was to overlay weather forecast data onto a map interface and to synchronise the display with the journey itself.
To develop an interactive and highly visual platform for representing, searching and filtering complex trust framework and associated rules and policies.
Evaluate visualisation and analytical methods for ‘Integrated Customer Data Exploration‘ and implement one use case for customer demo on data from a retail firm. Evaluate and suggest how a user driven customisation of interface and collaboration features could be integrated.
Community Council Location Finder
The project built a proof-of concept website to allow users to search for nearby Community Councils, and learn which are currently functional. This project was funded as a proof-of-concept by the Improvement Service and implemented by IIDI associate Dr Bruce Ryan.
Visual Exploration of Species-referenced Repositories (VESpeR)
Summary: Visualisation techniques have been recognised as one of the major directions in future research when handling and querying biological data, offering the ability to find patterns and outliers in data which traditional query interfaces cannot match.
Exploring a data set of 13 years of data related to property lets in Scotland in order to reveal business opportunities and to communicate better with current and potential customers. This will be achieved using data visualisation and statistical data mining approaches.
The implementation of a software tool for analysing large and complex pedigree genotype datasets (thousands of individuals genotyped for thousands of markers). The tool will combine genetic inference algorithms that report inheritance inconsistencies for marker genotypes across the pedigree with an...
IIDI, ERI & GamesAnalytics Ltd
The games industry is changing the method of distribution from retail to online. GamesAnalytics Ltd has been created to provide analytic services to improve the profitability of the games industry. Because games are now generally played online detailed event information can be collected at...
Data Discoveries Innovation
This project was investigating the feasibility of providing interactive visualisation tools for exploring statistical information on data cleansing.
MATSE: Information Visualisation of Microarray Time-course Data
Microarray time-course data relates to the recorded activity of large numbers of genes (~8,000) recorded in parallel over a number of time points (~20). This data contains a massive amount of potentially valuable information. In order to unlock that information, a biologist needs to find patterns...
Exploring planning permits with Information Extraction and GeoVisualisation
This project page provides links to the online resources referred to in my PhD, 'Monitoring the conformance of planning decisions to urban land use policies using Information Extraction and GeoVisualisation'. Each example is accompanied by a short explanation of what it shows.
Taxonomy has been described as “the science of documenting biodiversity”, which involves collecting, naming, describing, identifying and classifying specimens of organisms. Descriptions are the fundamental information units used in the process of constructing classifications and communicating...
The aim of the project is to construct a database system that will meet the requirements of current taxonomy practices. In particular, it will allow taxonomists to view and explore alternative classifications. The system will support provision of single authoritative classifications for use by...
Future Energy
Future energy management for buildings.
Scottish Woodlands KTP
Scottish Woodlands Ltd is Scotland's leading independent full-service forest management company. It is also the second largest operator in the UK, with a network of 17 offices operating throughout Scotland, England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Develop a prototype Budget visualization tool for the Scottish Government. Specifically they wish to improve their budget briefing/analysis: · to make the budget clearer/more visual · to make the budget analysis suitable for reading on PCs, tablets and mobile devices · to develop opportunities for...
It is the ultimate aim of the NHS to include genome data within patients’ medical records. However, such data is both massive and complex and thus difficult to understand. While improved data storage and access can help in dealing with data scale issues, the complexity of the genome data is...
Developing statistical and visualisation software for the visual analysis of games meta-data
This project will use PACT Analysis to evaluate the User Experience (UX) requirements throughout Trucomment's value chain, and identify and prioritise technical enhancements. We aim to apply emerging social media business models, UX trends for online journalism, and related issues in internet...
Returns Viz
This project aims to identify how Clear Returns could use visualisation techniques to more powerfully communicate the commercial insights they produce to a range of disparate internal stakeholders eg finance, marketing, merchandising.
ICEflo Visualisation
IIDI and Agenor are working together to design interactive web-based visualisations. This project is supported under the SFC innovation Voucher scheme. Agenor is an independent IT Services and Software company based in the Scottish Borders.
Ed Physio
The Edinburgh Physiotherapy Centre Ltd is looking at using its experience to produce an online web physio service for use of the general public and sports related bodies. They require help to develop a site which will include a 3D body avatar which can be used for diagnosis of problems via a...
This project evaluated the potential of several Free Open Source Software packages for the purpose of creating a bespoke GIS for use by geologists. It was conducted in collaboration with GeoloGIS Ltd.
ExtraMed Innovation
The work proposed is to scope out initial requirements for the submission of a SMART award application to develop a Digital Dashboard for use in the NHS to meet these needs. The work will involve background research into the company’s existing software for collecting information on a patient’s...
SEEK: Science Environment for Ecological Knowledge
The goals of the project are to make fundamental improvements in how researchers can 1) gain global access to ecological data and information, 2) rapidly locate and utilize distributed computational services, and 3) exercise powerful new methods for capturing, reproducing, and extending the...
TaxVis: Visualisation Tools for Integrating Large Alternative Linnaean Taxonomies
The TaxViz project is developing visualisation techniques for comparing multiple taxonomic hierarchies. Biological taxonomy involves the classification and naming of plants, animals and all the other living organisms on earth, however taxonomists often disagree over how the organisms should be...
OPAL: The Partner Lens
OPaL aims to explore the potential of tools that can assist firms to configure partnerships as and when required to meet the demands of a volatile distributed workplace (Handy, 1992). Whatever the motivation for re-structuring (reduced transaction costs, reduced agency costs, innovation),...
A research project aiming to provide a software workbench which facilitates the rapid in a manner which is independent of any specific underlying database system. This will provide a means for moving database interface development from an ad hoc, system-specific context towards more general and...


David Benyon
+44 131 455 2736
Alan Cannon
Research Fellow
+44 131 455 2437
Peter Chapman
+44 131 455 2962
Jessie Kennedy
Dean of Research and Innovation
+44 131 455 2772
Robert Kukla
Senior Research Fellow
+44 131 455 2738
Kenny Mitchell
+44 131 455 2484,0131 651 4884
Paul Shaw
Research Student
+44 131 455 2437
Tessa Berg
+44 131 455
Kevin Chalmers
Senior Lecturer
+44 131 455 2484
Brian Davison
+44 131 455 2373
Natalie Kerracher
Research Student
+44 131 455 2798
Paul Lapok
+44 131 455
John Morrison
Programme Leader & Lecturer
+44 131 455 2763
Anusua Singh Roy
Research student
+44 131 455


Bach, B., Kerracher, N., Hall, Kyle Wm., Carpendale, S., Kennedy, J., Riche, N. (2016). Telling Stories about Dynamic Networks with Graph Comics. In: (Ed.) Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'16), , () ( ed.). (pp. ). San Jose, CA: . ACM New York, NY, USA.

Kerracher, N., Kennedy, J., Chalmers, K. (2015). A Task Taxonomy for Temporal Graph Visualisation. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, , (), .

Kerracher, N., Kennedy, J., Chalmers, K., Graham, M. (2015). Visual Techniques to Support Exploratory Analysis of Temporal Graph Data. In: Kennedy, J., Puppo, E. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Eurographics Conference on Visualization (EuroVis '15), Short Papers Track, , () ( ed.). (pp. ). Cagliari: . Eurographics Assocation.

Trigueiros, P., Smyth, M., Helgason, I., Gallacher, S. (2015). Making Places: Visualization, Interaction and Experience in Urban Space (edited focus section). IxD&A, Interaction Design and Architecture.

Archambault, D., Abello, J., Kennedy, J., Kobourov, S., Ma, K., Miksch, S., Muelder, C., Telea, Alexandru C. (2014). Temporal Multivariate Networks. In: Kerren, A., Purchase, Helen C., Ward, Matthew O. (Eds.) Multivariate Network Visualization, LNCS 8380, () ( ed.). (pp. 151-175). : . Springer-Verlag.

Berg, T. (2014). Rich Picture: The Role of the Facilitator. Journal of Systemic Practice and Action Research, , (), .

Graham, M., Kennedy, J. (2014). Vesper: Visualising Species Archives. Ecological Informatics, 24, (), 132-147.

Kerracher, N., Kennedy, J., Chalmers, K. (2014). The Design Space of Temporal Graph Visualisation. In: Elmqvist, N., Hlawitschka, M., Kennedy, J. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 18th Eurographics Conference on Visualization (EuroVis '14), Short Papers Track, () ( ed.). (pp. ). Swansea: . Eurographics Assocation.

Roberts, Jonathan C., Ritsos, P., Badam, S., Brodbeck, D., Kennedy, J. (2014). Visualization beyond the Desktop--the Next Big Thing. Computer Graphics and Applications, 34, (6), 26-34.

Shaw, P., Graham, M., Kennedy, J., Milne, I., Marshall, D. (2014). Helium: Visualization of Large Scale Plant Pedigrees. BMC Bioinformatics, 15, (), 259.

Berg, T., Pooley, R. (2013). Contemporary iconography for rich picture constriuction. Systems Research and Behavoral Science, 30, (1), 31-42.

Berg, T., Pooley, R. (2013). Rich Pictures: Collaborative Communication through Icons. Journal of Systemic Practice and Action Research, 26, (4), 361-376.

Berg, T. (2013). Understanding Iconography: A Method to allow Rich Picture Interpretation to Improve (PhD). Heriot-Watt University (Bell, S., Pooley, R.).

Craig, P., Cannon, A., Kukla, R., Kennedy, J. (2013). MaTSE: the gene expression time-series explorer. BMC Bioinformatics, 14(Suppl 19), (S1), .

Kennedy, J., Graham, M., Paterson, T., Law, A. (2013). Visual Cleaning of Genotype Data. In: (Ed.) Proceedings of BioVis 2013, , () ( ed.). (pp. 105-112). : . IEEE Computer Society Press.

Thomson, A., Graham, M., Kennedy, J. (2013). Pianola - Visualization of Multivariate Time-Series Security Event Data. In: (Ed.) Proceedings of IV2013, , () ( ed.). (pp. 123-131). London, UK: . .

Berg, T. (2012, September). Rich Pictures: Understanding complexity through Icons. Paper presented at OR54 Annual Conference, Edinburgh.

Craig, P., Cannon, A., Kukla, R., Kennedy, J. (2012). MaTSE: The Microarray Time-Series Explorer. In: Roerdink, J., Hibbs, M. (Eds.) Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Biological Data Visualization (BioVis), 2012 , , () ( ed.). (pp. 41-48). : . IEEE.

Graham, M., Kennedy, J., Paterson, T., Law, A. (2012). Redeeming Pedigree Data with an Interactive Error Cleaning Visualisation. In: Tortora, G., Levialdi, S., Tucci, M. (Eds.) Proceedings of Advanced Visual Interfaces 2012, , () ( ed.). (pp. 741-744). : . ACM New York, NY, USA.

Paterson, T., Graham, M., Kennedy, J., Law, A. (2012). VIPER: a visualisation tool for exploring inheritance inconsistencies in genotyped pedigrees. BMC Bioinformatics, 13 (Suppl 8), (S5), .

Graham, M., Kennedy, J., Paterson, T., Law, A. (2011). Visualising Errors in Animal Pedigree Genotype Data. Computer Graphics Forum, 30, (3), 1011-1020.

Kandel, S., Heer, J., Plaisant, C., Kennedy, J., Ham, F., Riche, N., Weaver, C., Lee, B., Brodbeck, D., Buono, P. (2011). Research directions in data wrangling: Visualizations and transformations for usable and credible data. Information Visualization, October 2011, (10), 271-288.

Kennedy, J., Roerdink, J. (Eds.) (2011). BioVis 2011 Conference Proceedings, , () ( ed.). Providence, RI, USA: . IEEE Computer Society.

Melville, A., Graham, M., Kennedy, J. (2011). Combined vs. Separate Views in Matrix-based Graph Analysis and Comparison. In: (Ed.) Proceedings of IV2011, , () ( ed.). (pp. 53-58). London, UK: . IEEE Computer Society Press.

Paterson, T., Graham, M., Kennedy, J., Law, A. (2011). Evaluating the VIPER pedigree visualisation: detecting inheritance inconsistencies in genotyped pedigrees. In: (Ed.) Proc. of IEEE BioVis 2011, , () ( ed.). (pp. 119-126). Providence, RI, USA: . IEEE Computer Society Press.

Berg, T. (2010, ). A Structured Evolution of the Rich Picture. Paper presented at Operational Research (YOR), Birmingham, UK.

Craig, P., Kennedy, J., Kukla, R., Cannon, A. (2010). Pattern Browsing and Query Adjustment for the Exploratory Analysis and Cooperative Visualisation of Microarray Time-course Data. In: Luo, Y. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Cooperative Design, Visualisation and Engineering, 6240/2010, () ( ed.). (pp. 199-206). Mallorca, Spain: . Lecture Notes in Computer Science.

Graham, M., Kennedy, J. (2010). A Survey of Multiple Tree Visualisation. Information Visualization, 9, (4), 235-252.

Craig, P., Kennedy, J. (2009, ). Refactoring Data Transforms in MaTSE for Flexibility. Paper presented at REVISE: Refactoring Visualization from Experience, VizWeek Workshop, Atlantic City, NJ.

Graham, M., Kennedy, J. (2009, ). Re-architecting Visualizations to Java Swing. Paper presented at REVISE: Refactoring Visualization from Experience, VizWeek Workshop, Atlantic City, NJ.

Craig, P., Kennedy, J. (2008). Concept Relationship Editor: A visual interface to support the assertion of synonymy relationships between taxonomic classifications. In: Börner, K., Gröhn, Matti T., Park, J., Roberts, Jonathan C. (Eds.) Visualization and Data Analysis 2008, Proceedings of the SPIE, 6809, () ( ed.). (pp. 680906-680912). San Jose, CA: . Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, WA, ETATS-UNIS .

Graham, M., Kennedy, J. (2008). Multiform Views of Multiple Trees. In: (Ed.) Proceedings of IV2008, , () ( ed.). (pp. 252-257). London, UK: . IEEE Computer Society Press.

Graham, M., Craig, P., Kennedy, J. (2008). Visualisation to Aid Biodiversity Studies through Accurate Taxonomic Reconciliation. In: Gray, A., Jeffery, K., Shao, J. (Eds.) Proceedings of British National Conference on Database Systems: Sharing Data, Information and Knowledge, 5071/2008, () (LNCS 5071 ed.). (pp. 280-291). Cardiff, UK: . Springer-Verlag.

Craig, P., Kennedy, J. (2007, ). Concept Relationship Editor: A visual interface to support the creation of relationships between taxonomic classifications (poster). Paper presented at InfoVis2007, Sacramento CA.

Graham, M., Kennedy, J. (2007). Exploring Multiple Trees through DAG Representations. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 13, (6), 1294-1301.

Graham, M., Kennedy, J. (2007). Visual Exploration of Alternative Taxonomies through Concepts. Ecological Informatics, 2, (3), 248-261.

Priss, U., Old, L.J. (2007). Bilingual Word Association Networks. In: Priss, U., Polovina, S., Hill, R. (Eds.) LNAI 4604/2007, , () ( ed.). (pp. 310-320). Sheffield: . Springer-Verlag.

Craig, P. (2006). Animated Interval Scatter-plot Views for the Exploratory Analysis of Large Scale Microarray Time-course Data (PhD). Edinburgh Napier University ().

Graham, M., Kennedy, J., Downey, L. (2006). Visual Comparison and Exploration of Natural History Collections. In: Celentano, A., Mussio, P. (Eds.) Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI) 2006, , () ( ed.). (pp. 310-313). Venice, Italy: . ACM Press.

Craig, P., Kennedy, J., Cumming, A. (2005). Animated Interval Scatter-plot Views for the Exploratory Analysis of Large Scale Microarray Time-course Data. Information Visualization, 4, (3), 149-163.

Craig, P., Kennedy, J., Cumming, A. (2005). Coordinated Parallel Views for the Exploratory Analysis of Microarray Time-course Data. In: (Ed.) Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Coordinated & Multiple Views in Exploratory Visualization, , () ( ed.). (pp. 3-14). London: . IEEE Computer Society Press.

Craig, P., Kennedy, J., Cumming, A. (2005). Time-series Explorer: An Animated Information Visualisation for Microarray Time-course Data. BMC Bioinformatics 2005, 6, (3), P8.

Graham, M., Kennedy, J. (2005). Extending Taxonomic Visualisation to Incorporate Synonymy and Structural Markers. Information Visualization, 4, (3), 206-223.

Cannon, A., Kennedy, J., Paterson, T., Watson, M. (2004). Ontology-Driven Automated Generation Of Data Entry Interfaces. In: Williams, H., Mackinnon, L. (Eds.) Key Technologies for Data Management (Proc. BNCOD21): Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3112, , () ( ed.). (pp. 150-164). : . Springer-Verlag.

Graham, M., Kennedy, J. (2004). Exploring and Examining Assessment Data via a Matrix Visualisation. In: Costabile, M. (Ed.) Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI) 2004, , () ( ed.). (pp. 158-162). Gallipoli, Italy: . ACM Press.

Barclay, P., Griffiths, T., McKirdy, J., Kennedy, J., Cooper, R., Paton, N.W., Gray, P. (2003). Teallach - a Flexible User-Interface Development Environment for Object Database Applications. The Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, 14, (1), 47-77.

Craig, P., Kennedy, J. (2003). Coordinated Graph and Scatter-Plot Views for the Visual Exploration of Microarray Time-Series Data. In: (Ed.) IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, , () ( ed.). (pp. 173-180). Seattle WA: . IEEE Computer Society Press.

Graham, M., Kennedy, J. (2003). Using Curves to Enhance Parallel Coordinate Visualisations. In: (Ed.) IV 2003 - 7th International Conference on Information Visualization, , () ( ed.). (pp. 10-16). London, UK: . IEEE Computer Society Press.

Craig, P., Kennedy, J., Cumming, A. (2002). Towards Visualising Temporal Features in Large Scale Microarray Time-series Data. In: (Ed.) 6th International Conference on Information Visualisation - IV2002, , () ( ed.). (pp. 427-433). : . IEEE Computer Society Press.

Graham, M., Watson, M., Kennedy, J. (2002). Novel visualisation techniques for working with multiple, overlapping classification hierarchies. Taxon, 51, (2), 351-358.

Graham, M., Kennedy, J. (2001). Combining linking & focusing techniques for a multiple hierarchy visualisation. In: Banissi, E., Khosrowshahi, F., Sarfraz, M., Ursyn, A. (Eds.) IV 2001 - 5th International Conference on Information Visualisation, , () ( ed.). (pp. 425-432). UK: . IEEE Computer Society Press.

Graham, M. (2001). Visualising Multiple Overlapping Classification Hierarchies (PhD). Edinburgh Napier University (Kennedy, J., Benyon, D., Hand, C.).

Griffiths, T., Barclay, P., Paton, N.W., McKirdy, J., Kennedy, J., Gray, P., Cooper, R., Goble, C., Pinherio da Silva, P. (2001). Teallach: A Model-Based User Interface Development Environment for Object Databases. Interacting with Computers, 14, (1), 33-72.

Raguenaud, C., Graham, M., Kennedy, J. (2001). Two Approaches to Representing Multiple Overlapping Classifications: a Comparison. In: Kerschberg, L., Kafatos, M. (Eds.) 13th International Conference on Scientific and Statistical Database Management - SSDBM 2001, , () ( ed.). (pp. 239-244). Fairfax, Virginia, USA: . IEEE Computer Society Press.

Barclay, P., Kennedy, J. (2000). A Dual-level Presentation Model for Developing User-Interfaces. In: Gesu, V. Di, Levialdi, S., Tarantino, L. (Eds.) ADVANCED VISUAL INTERFACES International Working Conference - AVI 2000, , () ( ed.). (pp. 151-154). : . ACM Press.

Graham, M., Kennedy, J., Hand, C. (2000). A Comparison of Set-Based and Graph-Based Visualisations of Overlapping Classification Hierarchies. In: Gesu, V. Di, Levialdi, S., Tarantino, L. (Eds.) ACM Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI) 2000, , () ( ed.). (pp. 41-50). Italy: . ACM Press.

Graham, M., Kennedy, J., Benyon, D. (2000). Towards a methodology for developing visualizations. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 53, (), 789-807.

Barclay, P., Griffiths, T., Kennedy, J., McKirdy, J., Paton, N.W., Cooper, R. (1999). The Teallach Tool: Using Models For Flexible User Interface Design. In: Vanderdonckt, J., Puerta, A. (Eds.) 3rd International Conference on Computer-Aided Des, , () ( ed.). (pp. ). Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium): . Kluwer.

Graham, M., Kennedy, J., Hand, C. (1999). The Challenge of Visualising Multiple Overlapping Classification. In: Paton, N.W., Griffiths, T. (Eds.) IEEE User Interfaces to Data Intensive Systems (UIDIS) 1999, , () ( ed.). (pp. 42-51). Scotland: . IEEE Computer Society Press.

Griffiths, T., Barclay, P., McKirdy, J., Paton, N.W., Gray, P.G., Kennedy, J. (1999). Teallach: A Model-Based User Interface Development Environment for Object Databases. In: Paton, N.W., Griffiths, T. (Eds.) User Interfaces to Data Intensive Systems, , () ( ed.). (pp. 86-96). Edinburgh, Scotland: . IEEE Computer Society Press.

Gray, P., Griffiths, T., Cooper, R., Kennedy, J., McKirdy, J., Barclay, P. (1998). A Lightweight Presentation Model for Database User Interfaces. In: (Ed.) ERCIM\'98, , () ( ed.). (pp. ). Stockholm: . .

Griffiths, T., McKirdy, J., Paton, N.W., Kennedy, J., Cooper, R., Barclay, P., Goble, C., Gray, P., Smyth, M., West, A., Dinn, A. (1998). An Open Model-Based Interface Development System: The Teallach Approach. In: (Ed.) Proceedings of DSV-IS '98: 5th International Eurographics Workshop on Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems, , () ( ed.). (pp. ). Cosener's House, Abingdon, UK: . .

Griffiths, T., McKirdy, J., Forrester, G., Paton, N.W., Kennedy, J., Barclay, P., Cooper, R., Goble, C., Gray, P. (1998). Exploiting Model Based Techniques for User Interfaces to Databases. In: Ioannidis, YE., Klas, W. (Eds.) ADVANCED VISUAL INTERFACES, VISUAL DATABASE SYSTEMS. International Working Conference - VDB4, 1998, , () ( ed.). (pp. 21-46). L\'Aquilla, Italy: . Chapman and Hall.

Mitchell, K., Kennedy, J. (1997). The Perspective Tunnel: An Inside View on Smoothly Integrating Detail and Context. In: (Ed.) Proc. of Eurographics Workshop on Visualisation in, , () ( ed.). (pp. ). Boulogne Sur Med, France: . .

Mitchell, K., Kennedy, J., Barclay, P. (1997). Using Active Constructs in User-Interfaces to Object-Oriented Databases. In: (Ed.) in Procs of the 1st International Database enginee, , () ( ed.). (pp. 3-12,). Montreal, Canada,: . IEEE Computer Society Press.

Kennedy, J., Mitchell, K., Barclay, P. (1996). A Framework for Information Visualisation. ACM SIGMOD Record, , (), .

Kennedy, J., Mitchell, K., Barclay, P. (1996). Describing and Characterising Visualisations. In: (Ed.) 3rd FADIVA Workshop, , () ( ed.). (pp. ). Gubbio, Italy: . .

Mitchell, K., Kennedy, J., Barclay, P. (1996). A framework for user-interfaces to databases. In: Catarci, T., Costabile, M., Levialdi, S., Santucci, G. (Eds.) International Workshop on Advanced Visual Interfaces, AVI\'96, , () ( ed.). (pp. 81-90). Gubbio, Italy: . ACM Press.

Mitchell, K., Kennedy, J., Barclay, P. (1996). DRIVE: An environment for the orgainised construction of user interfaces to data. In: Kennedy, J.B., Barclay, P.J. (Eds.) 3rd International Workshop on User Interfaces to Databases - IDS3, 1996, ElectronicWorkshopsinComputing, () ( ed.). (pp. ). Napier University, Edinburgh: . Springer-Verlag.

Kennedy, J., Mitchell, K., Barclay, P. (1995). 3D Information visualisation: Identifying and measuring success. In: (Ed.) 2nd FADIVA Workshop, 1995, , () ( ed.). (pp. ). Glasgow University, Glasgow: . .

Mitchell, K., Kennedy, J., Barclay, P. (1995). Using a conceptual language to describe a database and its interface. In: Goble, C., Keane, J. (Eds.) 13th British National Conference on Database - BNCOD13, 1995, , () ( ed.). (pp. 101-119). University of Manchester: . Springer-Verlag.

Rapley, M.H., Kennedy, J. (1994). Three dimensional interface for an object oriented database. In: Sawyer, P. (Ed.) 2nd International Workshop on Interfaces to Databases - IDS2, 1994, 02:08, () (02:08 ed.). (pp. 133-158). : . Springer-Verlag.